Pezzi, L. P., R. B. de Souza, M. F. Santini, A. J. Miller,
J. T. Carvalho, C. K. Parise, M. F. Quadro, E. B. Rosa, F.
Justino, U. A. Sutil, M. J. Cabrera, A. V. Babanin, J.
Voermans, E. L. Nascimento, R. C. M. Alves, G. B. Munchow and J.
Oceanic eddy-induced modifications to air-sea heat and
CO2 fluxes in the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence
Scientific Reports, 11, 10648.
Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies caused by a warm core eddy (WCE) in the
Southwestern Atlantic Ocean (SWA) rendered a crucial influence on modifying the
marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL). During the first cruise to support the
Antarctic Modeling and Observation System (ATMOS) project, a WCE that was shed
from the Brazil Current was sampled. Apart from traditional meteorological
measurements, we used the Eddy Covariance method to directly measure the
ocean-atmosphere sensible heat, latent heat, momentum, and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes.
The mechanisms of pressure adjustment and vertical mixing that can make the MABL
unstable were both identified. The WCE also acted to increase the surface winds and
heat fluxes from the ocean to the atmosphere. Oceanic regions at middle and high
latitudes are expected to absorb atmospheric CO2, and are thereby considered as sinks,
due to their cold waters. Instead, the presence of this WCE in midlatitudes, surrounded
by predominantly cold waters, caused the ocean to locally act as a CO2 source. The
contribution to the atmosphere was estimated as 0.3 +/- 0.04 mmol m-2 day-1, averaged
over the sampling period. The CO2 transfer velocity coefficient (K) was determined
using a quadratic fit and showed an adequate representation of ocean-atmosphere
fluxes. The ocean-atmosphere CO2, momentum, and heat fluxes were each closely
correlated with the SST. The increase of SST inside the WCE clearly resulted in larger
magnitudes of all of the ocean-atmosphere fluxes studied here. This study adds to our
understanding of how oceanic mesoscale structures, such as this WCE, affect the