Yi, D. L., B. Gan, L. Wu and A. J. Miller, 2018:
The North Pacific Gyre Oscillation and mechanisms
of its decadal variability in CMIP5 models.
Journal of Climate, 31, 2487-2509.
Based on the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) product and 37 models from phase 5 of the Coupled
Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) database, the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) and its decadal
generation mechanisms are evaluated by studying the second leading modes of North Pacific sea surface
height (SSH) and sea level pressure (SLP) as well as their dynamical connections. It is found that 17 out of 37
models can well simulate the spatial pattern and decadal time scales (10–30 yr) of the NPGO mode, which
resembles the observation-based SODA results. Dynamical connections between the oceanic mode (NPGO)
and the atmospheric mode [North Pacific Oscillation (NPO)] are strongly evident in both SODA and the 17
models. In particular, about 30%–40% of the variance of the NPGO variability, which generally exhibits a
preferred time scale, can be explained by the NPO variability, which has no preferred time scale in
Two mechanisms of the decadal NPGO variability that had been proposed by previous studies are evaluated
in SODA and the 17 models: 1) stochastic atmospheric forcing and oceanic spatial resonance and 2)
low-frequency atmospheric teleconnections excited by the equatorial Pacific. Evaluation reveals that these
two mechanisms are valid in SODA and two models (CNRM-CM5 and CNRM-CM5.2), whereas two models
(CMCC-CM and CMCC-CMS) prefer the first mechanism and another two models (CMCC-CESM and
IPSL-CM5B-LR) prefer the second mechanism. The other 11 models have no evident relations with the
proposed two mechanisms, suggesting the need for a fundamental understanding of the decadal NPGO
variability in the future.