Amaya, D. J., N. E. Bond, A. J. Miller and M. J. DeFlorio, 2016:

The evolution and known atmospheric forcing mechanisms behind the 2013-2015 North Pacific warm anomalies

U.S. CLIVAR Variations, 14, 1-6.

Summary. In the winter of 2013/2014, North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies exceeded three standard deviations above the mean over a large region, shifting focus away from the tropics and onto the extratropics as the associated atmospheric circulation patterns helped exacerbate the most significant California drought in the instrumental record. This extratropical warming has since become known in the media and the literature simply as "the Blob" or "the Warm Blob" and represents a climate state unlike anything seen in the last 30 years. In contrast to the more offshore Blob, the Arc Pattern that followed it in fall 2014 is characterized by broad coastal warming, reminiscent of a Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)-like structure. The Baja Warming Pattern, the third and final development of these extreme anomalies in fall 2015, has similar spatial characteristics to the Pacific Merdional Mode. We present here a synthesis of what is currently known about the occurrence and unique forcing mechanisms of these extreme warm SST anomalies (marine heat waves), including comparisions with historical magnitudes.

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