Randall, D. A., K.-M. Xu, R. C. J. Somerville, and S. F. Iacobellis, 1996: Single-column models and cloud ensemble models as links between observations and climate models. J. Climate, 9, 1683-1697.



Among the methods that have been devised to test physical parameterizations used in general circulation models, one of the most promising involves the use of field data together with single-column models (SCMs) and/or cloud ensemble models. Here the authors briefly discuss the data requirements of such models and then give several examples of their use. Emphasis is on parameterizations of convection and cloud amount.