Lee, W.-H., R. C. J. Somerville, and S. F. Iacobellis, 1997: Cloud radiation forcings and feedbacks: General circulation model tests and observational validation. J. Climate, 10, 2479-2496.
Using an atmospheric general circulation model (the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model: CCM2), the effects on climate sensitivity of several different cloud-radiation parameterizations have been investigated. In addition to the original cloud-radiation scheme of CCM2, we tested four parameterizations incorporating prognostic cloud water: one version with prescribed cloud radiative properties and three other versions with interactive cloud radiative properties. Our numerical experiments employ perpetual July integrations driven by globally constant sea surface temperature forcings of two degrees, both positive and negative.
A diagnostic radiation calculation has been applied to investigate the partial contributions of high, middle and low cloud to the total cloud radiative forcing, as well as the contributions of water vapor, temperature and cloud to the net climate feedback. The high cloud net radiative forcing is positive, and the middle and low cloud net radiative forcings are negative. The total net cloud forcing is negative in all of the model versions. The effect of interactive cloud-radiative properties on global climate sensitivity is significant. The net cloud-radiative feedbacks consist of quite different shortwave and longwave components between the schemes with interactive cloud radiative properties and the schemes with specified properties. The increase in cloud water content in the warmer climate leads to optically thicker middle and low level clouds and in turn to negative shortwave feedbacks for the interactive radiative schemes, while the decrease in cloud amount simply produces a positive shortwave feedback for the schemes with a specified cloud water path. For the longwave feedbacks, the decrease in high effective cloudiness for the schemes without interactive radiative properties leads to a negative feedback, while for the other cases, the longwave feedback is positive.
We have empirically validated these cloud-radiation parameterizations by using a single-column diagnostic model, together with measurements from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and from the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Combined Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA-COARE). The inclusion of prognostic cloud water produces a notable improvement in the realism of the parameterizations, as judged by these observations. Furthermore, the observational evidence suggests that deriving cloud radiative properties from cloud water content and microphysical characteristics is a promising route to further improvement.