Miller, A. J., M. Collins, S. Gualdi, T. G. Jensen, V. Misra, L. P. Pezzi, D. W. Pierce, D. Putrasahan, H. Seo and Y.-H. Tseng, 2017:

Coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling and predictions

In: The Science of Ocean Prediction, The Sea, Volume 17, N. Pinardi, P. Lermusiaux and K. Brink, eds., in press.

Abstract. The ocean exerts a strong influence on the atmospheric circulation and precipitation, both due to the oceanic mean state and its anomalies. These influences occur throughout the ocean and extend over land and affect many time scales of variability, including monsoons, El-Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), decadal modes and the response to greenhouse gas emissions. Global coupled climate models are needed to represent and understand the complicated processes involved and allow us to make predictions over land and sea. Regional coupled climate models are needed to enhance our interpretation of the fine-scale response.
This chapter focuses on the fundamental ideas of coupling between the oceanatmosphere- land system, particularly as it affects precipitation, in both global and regional contexts. While other chapters discuss shorter time scales (daily to seasonal), we focus here on interannual to decadal variations of the large-scale system. We also discuss how those large-scale, low-frequency variations can influence shorter timescale variations and how the system can be downscaled to understand local impacts.
Our goal here is to summarize key aspects of the current state of global and regional climate models, focusing on their ability to represent dynamical and precipitation processes on interannual, decadal and global-warming timescales, in which the influence of the oceans is relevant and the potential for predictability is emphasized.

Preprint (pdf)